but failed to converge once acceptance strategies by parents were included. Maximum likelihood (ML) was used as the estimation method for all models, which allows for direct comparisons between models through a likelihood ratio test of deviance (e.g., -2LL a welcome alternative over the Wald 31 test, which can lead to Type II errors (Garson, 2013). Journal of Personality, 73(6. Maya libben, psychology Supervisory Committee Member, Professor. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 6(4 407-414. Waba III tested whether the total correlation between a predictor and the outcome variable were due to between- or within-person factors. 1 Chapter 1: Introduction Emotion regulation (ER) refers to the management of an individuals emotions in terms of which emotion is experienced, when the emotion is experienced, and how the emotion is experienced or expressed (Gross, 1998). However, when looking more closely at the subscales of positive interpersonal strategies, only acceptance strategies were associated with similar levels of positive and negative emotions, not positive engagement strategies. Metadata, jSON: 24-1.0314141.json, jSON-LD: 24-1.0314141-ld. As hypothesized, more positive interpersonal strategies were used with friends than with parents (49.5 versus.8) on average, and this difference was significant, Z -22.48,.001. Model 2: Interpersonal ER Strategy Subscales for Positive Emotions.
Clarifying the Relationship between Emotion Regulation, Gender
This study used an intensive longitudinal design to (i) describe the frequency with which interpersonal ER strategies are used; (ii) assess the association of interpersonal ER strategies with positive and negative emotions, and (iii) assess the roles of friends and parents in ER efforts. A relationship between total positive engagement strategies and positive or negative emotions was not found, however, when support source was considered, higher than usual levels of positive engagement strategies by friends emerged as being significantly related to higher positive emotions, explaining less than. Affect-worsening strategies were broken down into negative engagement (e.g., explained how I hurt them or someone else, complained about my behaviour) and rejection (e.g., told me about my shortcomings, made it clear they dont care about my feelings) strategies. With the addition of these predictors, the final model accounted for.81 of the within-person variance in positive emotions and.49 of the between-person variance in positive emotions. Although research on the interpersonal context of ER is sparse, there is evidence to suggest that the source of social support is important.