wanted to be better than everyone else. Discourse on the Arts and Sciences as an effort "to destroy that magical illusion which gives how to refer to yourself in group essay us a stupid admiration for the instruments of our misfortunes and an attempt to correct that deceptive assessment that makes us honor pernicious talents and scorn useful virtues. Adopting what he thought the properly scientific method of investigating origins, he attempts to reconstruct the earliest phases of human life on earth. Rousseau laments the fatal concept of property in one of his more-eloquent passages, describing the horrors that have resulted from the departure from a condition in which the earth belonged to no one. Some six years later Saint-Preux returns from his travels and is engaged as tutor to the Wolmar children. It should be noted that Rousseau was bitterly opposed to the idea that the people should exercise sovereignty via a representative assembly ; rather, he held that they should make the laws directly, which would effectively prevent the ideal state from becoming a large society. He was ordered to stop by the police, and the "Confessions" was only partially published in 1782, four years after his death (all his subsequent works were only to appear posthumously ). In "The Social Contract" of 1762 (his most important work and one of the most influential works of Political Philosophy in the Western tradition he offered his own alternative conception of the social contract.
Rousseaus definition of political liberty raises an obvious problem. He did not, however, imply that humans in the state of nature necessarily acted morally (in fact, terms such as 'justice' or 'wickedness' are simply inapplicable to pre-political society as Rousseau understood it). The New Eloise, being a novel, escaped the censorship to which the other two works were subject; indeed, of all his books it proved to be the most widely read and the most universally praised in his lifetime.
In 1754, he returned to Geneva where he re-converted to Calvinism and regained his official Genevan citizenship. Again Geneva was the model: not Geneva as it had become in 1754 when Rousseau returned there to recover his rights as a citizen, but Geneva as it had once beeni. Rousseau hastened into print with a defense of the Calvinist orthodoxy of the pastors and with an elaborate attack on the theatre as an institution that could only do harm to an innocent community such as Geneva. His view that man is good by nature conflicted with the doctrine of original sin, and his theology of nature (as well as the claims he made in "The Social Contract" that true followers of Jesus would not make good citizens ) led to the. The Encyclopdie was an important organ of radical and anticlerical opinion, and its contributors were as much reforming and even iconoclastic pamphleteers as they were philosophers.