2014, satellite imagery and testimony gathered by Amnesty International (AI) indicated the Kremlins assertion was incorrect. Eyes on Darfur was one of AIs first major remote sensing projects. American Association for the Advancement of Science, have produced dozens of reports based on the analysis of commercial satellite imagery. The lord of the flies text response essay boomerang model of human rights advocacy, developed by political scientists Margaret Keck and Kathryn Sikkink, underscores the idea that information collected by human rights NGOs is intended to pressure abusers of rights into better compliance with broadly shared norms. With enough imagery over time, patterns emerge that allow for prediction. Learning where to draw the line in the responsible use of imagery remains a great challenge moving forward, but remote sensing analysts working in human rights are well aware of the challenges and are committed to refining its use. By broadcasting perceived indicators of impending aggression, SSP was inserting itself directly into events. A counter to this assertion would point out that human rights organizations have always used the tools available to them to alter the behavior of war criminals and human rights abusers. Third, human rights NGOs are now in the business of anticipating events. It involves taking a principled but detached position. In the last decade, AI and HRW, sometimes in partnership with the.
Theyve been used to spot mass graves in Burundi, verify the destruction of two towns in northern Nigeria by Boko Haram, and reveal the massacre of at least 350 people by the Nigerian army. The goal was to acquire and analyze imagery and publicize findings at a pace that would deter further aggression usually by forces aligned with Khartoum. The potential for getting too far ahead of what the imagery revealed, or simply getting it wrong, raised serious ethical and operational concerns for those responsible for the project. As its website notes, Through analysis of, digitalGlobe s satellite imagery, the Satellite Sentinel Project can identify chilling warning signs elevated roads for moving heavy armor, lengthened airstrips for landing attack aircraft, build-ups of troops, tanks, and artillery preparing for invasion and sound the alarm. Professional analysts with DigitalGlobe backstopped the effort, as did for a time United Nations image analysts in Geneva, but much of the work and responsibility fell to the students and a handful of paid SSP staff.
DigitalGlobes WorldView-3 satellite collects 1,200,000 km2 of images of the earth each day, and it is only one of the dozens of high-resolution satellites in orbit, with more coming online each year. As an AI analysts told me recently, The real purpose (of the 2007. The availability of god-like views from the heavens certainly allows AI to stand aloof literally, above, beyond, outside the world. This offers the tantalizing possibility of NGO interventions in events by releasing statements and images as a warning to potential aggressors that they are being observed. Some might argue that AI has taken a step beyond bearing witness: it is using its moral authority and its technical prowess us phd thesis search to alter events on the ground.
A persuasive example of this is found in SSPs high-tempo use of satellite imagery in 2011 to affect political outcomes along what is now the border region between South Sudan and Sudan. This goal put tremendous pressure on young volunteer analysts, mostly Harvard undergraduate students, to get it right.